HOMEOSTASIS: Controlling the blood sugar levels

Last lesson we studied how we control the body temperature.

Another factor that should be kept constant is the levels of glucose in blood.

Which are they?

Study this web-page for revision.

b) Level of glucose increases »» Brain sends message to the pancreas through neurones »» Pancreas releases insulin »»  Insulin allows glucose to be taken into cells where is used in respiration. Glucose is also converted to glycogen by liver and muscle which is stored in the liver and muscles  »» Levels of blood sugar lowers  »» Blood sugar levels return to normal

Level of glucose decreases  »»  Brain sends message to the pancreas through neurones »» Pancreas releases glucagon  »» liver starts to break down stored glycogen and convert it back into glucose which can be used by cells »» Blood sugar levels raise »» Blood sugar levels return to normal

  c) Negative feedback is when there is a change in the normal behaviour of the body (a change in blood sugar levels in this case) and the body reverses these changes and make them return back to its set levels.
a) Diabetes type1
Causes: Body does not produce the right amount of insulin or, in some cases, does not produce any at all.
Treatment: Daily injections of insulin, managed diet, planned exercise to balance energy needs with food and insulin intakes.
Diabetes type 2
Causes: Pancreas does produce insulin but cells stop responding properly to the insulin.
Treatment: lose weight and eat a carefully balanced diet can often control or even reverse the illness. However for some people oral drugs and even injections of insulin may be needed.
c)  Genetic engineering involves the extraction of genes from one organism, or the synthesis of genes, in order to place them in another organism (of the same or another species) such that the receiving organism expresses the gene product.

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