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Essay «A Horse and Two Goats»

The most important theme in «A Horse and Two Goats», and in fact the central theme of Narayan’s work, is the clash of cultures. Do you agree?

Clash of cultures is the central theme of the story «A horse and Two Goats» but it has small themes which have to do with it. In the following essay I will name and explain all the themes in the story which are related to clash of cultures.

The first theme I will explain is colonization or consequences of colonization. The story is set in India, after the independence from Great Britain. When India was colonized she lost her dignity, her culture and her past. This brought huge consequences to the times of this story. For example, the fact that the American goes there to visit and thinks that Muni should speak English because everyone there does. «»…can’t you understand even a simple word of English? Everyone in this country seems to know English.»» Muni doesn’t speak English due to the fact that he is from the old school and when the British came to India he was old and didn’t mind to learn a new language. He also had the intention to retain his language and identity. But the people who had talked to the American might have been young and could have time to learn the new language.

Disappearance of Indian culture is the next theme. As you can see after the British came, they took away the Indian culture, or forgot it, and metaphorically, digged the Indian past. It’s seen in the story when the American buys the horse and takes it away to the USA when the horse had a very strong importance for the Indian culture. «…»This is our guardian […] a horse called Kalki. This horse will […] trample down all bad men»…». Then, Muni started to tell stories related to this statue which means a lot to his Indian past.  But only we readers can know that. Not the American because he doesn’t understand. So there is where irony appears as a theme, although it is also a tone throughout story.

Contrast of cultures is another important theme. It consists of the differences that we notice on the American and Indian cultures when the conversation takes place. One difference could be the religion. Muni has a very complex religion with a lot of stories and Gods. «Muni was still hovering on visitors of Avatars…». Avatars are Gods for the Indian religion. The american never talks about religion. Maybe it’s not that important for him. Then we have the marriage differences. Muni had married at a very young age and, of course he didn’t chose his wife. «He was told on his day if wedding that he was ten and she was eight.» The American also had a wife but, of course, he chose her and they married at a conventional age. So here we get to know the theme related to love. In the story it says that «They had lived in each other’s company since they were children.» But now, his wife wasn’t putting up with him very much lately.

Finally I will explain the Clash of Cultures theme which partially consists of the differences of both cultures when they meet. No one of them can understand a thing. Both, the American and Muni are talking about different things. «The man said «I come from New York»…» «…Muni shrank away […] perhaps he was trying to present a warrant and arrest him». No one of them could understand. This theme, Clash of Cultures, includes all the themes named before. It includes the Consequences of Colonization because in the colonization the cultures also meet; it includes Disappearance of Indian Culture since when this cultures meet, the horse, which represents Indian past, is taken away; It includes irony because the characters don’t know what they are saying but we, readers, do; it includes contrast of cultures because in their encounter of cultures you can notice the differences and it includes love, because the two cultures have different ways of understanding it and living it.

In conclusion, the story deals with a lot themes which have to do and are related to the theme Clash of Cultures.

Essay Literature Nº 1

Explore amazement at nature and man-made objects in «Composed Upon Westminster Bridge»

In the following Essay I will explore and investigate the amazement of the voice at nature and man-made objects in «Composed Upon West Minster Bridge», the poem we have been lately reading in our Literature class.

At the beggining the voice expresses his amazement and his owe at this place where he is standing. «Earth has not anything to show more fair». He uses a lot of hyperbolic language to say how he feels. «Dull would he be of soul who could pass by a sight so touching in its majesty». He tries to say that if someone could pass by and don´t pay attention to that landscape that soul would be very boring and ignorant.

But then we know that he is talking about a city! «This City now doth, like a garment, wear the beauty of the morning» He is in love with this city! Cities and modernization are not ver positive in other poems just like «The City Planners» or «The Planners», other poems we have seen in class. Then he stars to give examples of things of the city such as «Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples».

Then in line 7 nature takes place. «Open unto the fields, and to the sky». So we find out that as the city isn´t part of nature, it is not in conflict with it. Then in line 8 the author says that the air is «smokeless air». So now it makes sense. The city by that time was passing through a very busy time. The Industrial Revolution. New machinery and industries surged and the air was really polluted. But in this city, «The beauty of the morning» is smokeless. The factories are not working, everyone is sleeping, cars aren´t passing by. «Silent, bare».

Then nature is better revealed. «valley, rock, or hill». The writter also personifies the city. «Never did sun more beautifully steep» «The river glideth at his own sweet will» «the very houses seem asleep». He gives a «symbolic heart» to the city. And that heart is «lying still». Is asleep, is silent.

The writter is from the countryside and he is accostumed to see this silence and this calm atmosphere. But in the countryside! He never imagined he could find this beautifull landscape in the city during the industrial revolution. That adds up to the amazement. So he is in awe with the beautifull landscape of the city, because he never thought he would have seen it before.

In conclusion, the writter is amazed at nature and man-made objects in this poem because they aren´t in conflict and that landscape was unexpected.



Essay Writing 12/8

How far was the Lague of Nations successful in the 1920´s?

In this essay I am going to give reasons and enumerate why the League of Nations was mainly successful in the 1920´s.

The League of Nations had many problems which she had to solve but she olny missed one. Vilna, the «crucial first test case». Vilna was the capital of Lithuania. Poland took control of it and Lithuania appealed for help. Both countries were members of the League. The League had to force Poland to set Vilna free. But Britain and France weren´t prepared to attack Poland because she could be a future ally against Germany. As a result, Poland kept Vilna. In this opportunity the League wasn´t successful, but it was the only non-success.

Nextly, I am going to explain what happened at Upper Silesia in 1921. Upper Silesia was an industrial region on the border between Germany and Poland. Both countries wanted control of it but it was ocuppied by German and Polish people together. The League organized a plebiscite. Half land voted for Germany and half for Poland. The region was divided and safe-guards were located to avoid future disputies. Both countries accepted the decision and the League was successful.

In 1921 Sweden and Fineland wanted control of the Aaland Islands which were located in the middle of both countries. Sweden and Fineland were about to fight for those islands but the League intervened and «studying the matter colsely» they decided that the islands should go to Fineland. Sweden accepted the League´s will and war was avoided.

What happened in Corfu in 1923 was successful but not exactly what the League expected. Of course afer all, war was avoided. Corfu was a boundarie between Greece and Albania. Both countries had to decide wich country should keep Corfu. A conference of ambassadors was held up and it appointed an Italian general to supervise it, Tellini. One day, when Tellini and his troops were studying the Greek side of Corfu, they fell in an ambush and were killed. Another leader called Mussolini was bitter and blamed the Greek people for the ambush. On the 31 of August, Mussolini and his troops attacked and conquered the Greek side of Corfu. The League was called. The League thought it was really serious because these events were very like the events that leaded to the First World War. The League condemned Mussolini´s actions and made the Greek goverment pay but the money would be held by the League and will be payed to Italy by steps when Tellini´s killers were found. Everyone accepted but, «behind the scenes», Mussolini made Greece pay directly to them. Later he withdrew Corfu. War was again, avoided.

A Protocol was held up by the League after they realized that it´s own members could ignore what the League say, The Geneva Protocol. This consisted that when two members of the League are in dispute, they should accept and do what the League say. They hoped this protocole strenght the League, but finally, it did the opposite. A general election in Britain was held before this was put in action. The «New Conservative government» refused to dign because maybe Britain was forced to do something that wasn´t in her interests. This Protocole finally, wakened the League.

In 1925 Greek troops attacked Bulgaria after an incident in the border in which Greek people were killed. Bulgaria appeald for help to the League. Bulgaria also send instructions to the army which said that they only should make «slight resistance», they should not expose soldiers because maybe they could be killed and the League of Nations was now coming. The League made Greece pay compensations to Bulgaria and Greece accepted, not very happy. War was avoided again by the Lague.

So in this essay you now can see how successful The League was in the 1920´s.